Breaking Language Barriers: The Transformative Impact of Translanguaging on ELT in India

Memecahkan Halangan Bahasa: Kesan Transformatif Translanguaging Terhadap ELT di India

Authors

  • Amrendra Kumar Singh Department of Language and Literacy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53840/attarbawiy.v7i2.156

Keywords:

Translanguaging, ELT, India, pedagogical stylistics, NEP-India, multilingualism

Abstract

Abstract

This paper surveys studies on translanguaging and ELT in India between 2005 and 2022. Specifically in English Language Teaching (ELT), translanguaging—defined as using various languages to promote learning and communication—has received significant attention in the Indian educational system. This abstract summarizes research into the use and success of translanguaging strategies in India's English language teaching (ELT). To do this, we searched for relevant studies, articles, and other publications utilizing academic databases like Google Scholar, ERIC, and JSTOR. Some of the terms that were used in the search were "translanguaging," "multilingualism," "language education," "language policy," "bilingualism," and "language acquisition." After locating the relevant literature, it had to be evaluated for quality. Finding out if an article is relevant requires reading abstracts and summaries. Translanguaging has been shown to have favorable effects on English as a foreign language (ELT), including enhanced language learning, enhanced academic achievement, and a heightened drive to study. However, some schools and teachers in India are reluctant to incorporate multilingual practices, so adopting translanguaging strategies in English language teaching has been patchy. In addition, studies show that translanguaging-centric teacher training and professional development initiatives need more funding. Teachers must receive proper training and support for translanguaging methods to be successfully implemented in the classroom. For translanguaging approaches to be successfully implemented in the classroom, policymakers must give schools and teachers more support and resources. By encouraging bilingualism, translanguaging may improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs in India. Enhancing learning results and stimulating student interest. However, effective implementation of these principles in ELT still needs to be improved, such as a lack of support for teachers and inconsistent adoption across different regions and institutions. Investing more in teacher education and professional development programs and more support and resources from legislators is necessary to meet these challenges. Translanguaging's long-term effects on student outcomes and the role of teachers in fostering multilingualism in ELT warrant additional study.

 

Abstrak

Kertas kerja ini meninjau kajian mengenai translanguaging dan ELT di India antara tahun 2005 dan 2022 khususnya dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Inggeris (ELT). Translanguaging - ditakrifkan sebagai pengunaan pelbagai bahasa untuk menggalakkan pembelajaran dan komunikasi – ia telah mendapat perhatian yang signifikan dalam sistem pendidikan India. Abstrak ini meringkaskan penyelidikan ke dalam penggunaan dan kejayaan strategi translanguaging dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggeris India (ELT). Untuk menjayakan kajian ini, kami mencari artikel dan penerbitan lain yang berkaitan dengan menggunakan pangkalan data akademik seperti Google Scholar, ERIC dan JSTOR. Beberapa istilah yang digunakan dalam carian adalah "translanguaging," "pelbagai bahasa," "pendidikan bahasa," "dasar bahasa," "dwibahasa," dan "pemerolehan bahasa." Selepas mencari kajian lepas yang berkaitan, ia perlu dinilai untuk kualiti. Mengetahui sama ada artikel adalah relevan dengan membaca abstrak dan ringkasan. Translanguaging telah terbukti mempunyai kesan yang baik terhadap bahasa Inggeris sebagai bahasa asing (ELT), termasuk pembelajaran bahasa yang dipertingkatkan, pencapaian akademik yang dipertingkatkan, dan dorongan yang tinggi untuk belajar. Walau bagaimanapun, sesetengah sekolah dan guru di India enggan menggabungkan amalan pelbagai bahasa, jadi amalan translanguaging dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggeris tidak begitu berkesan di sesetengah kawasan. Di samping itu, kajian menunjukkan bahawa latihan guru yang berpusatkan translanguaging dan inisiatif pembangunan profesional memerlukan lebih banyak pembiayaan. Guru mesti menerima latihan dan sokongan yang betul bagi kaedah translanguaging untuk berjaya dilaksanakan di dalam bilik darjah. Untuk menterjemahkan pendekatan yang berjaya dilaksanakan di dalam bilik darjah, penggubal dasar mesti memberi lebih banyak sokongan dan sumber kepada sekolah dan guru. Dengan menggalakkan dwibahasa, translanguaging boleh meningkatkan bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua (ESL) program di India. Meningkatkan keputusan pembelajaran dan merangsang minat pelajar. Walau bagaimanapun, pelaksanaan prinsip-prinsip ini dalam ELT yang berkesan masih perlu diperbaiki, seperti kekurangan sokongan untuk guru dan penggunaan yang tidak konsisten di seluruh rantau dan institusi yang berbeza. Melabur lebih banyak dalam pendidikan guru dan program pembangunan profesional dan lebih banyak sokongan dan sumber dari penggubal undang-undang adalah perlu untuk memenuhi cabaran ini. Kesan jangka panjang translanguaging terhadap hasil pelajar dan peranan guru dalam memupuk penggunaan pelbagai bahasa dalam ELT memerlukan kajian yang lebih lanjut.

References

Anderson, J. (2022). The translanguaging practices of expert Indian teachers of English and their learners, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2022.2045300

Anderson, J., & Lightfoot, A. (2018, December 11). Translingual practices in English classrooms in India: current perceptions and future possibilities. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 24(8), 1210–1231. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1548558

Azam, M., Chin, A., & Prakash, N. (2013, January). The Returns to English-Language Skills in India. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 61(2), 335–367. https://doi.org/10.1086/668277

Bhatt, R. M., & Bolonyai, A. (2019). Code-switching and translanguaging. In J-O. Östman, & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics: 22nd Annual Installment (pp. 59-78). (Handbook of Pragmatics). John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/hop.22.cod2

Bhatt, R. M., & Bolonyai, A. (2022). Codeswitching and its Terminological Other – Translanguaging. In J. MacSwan (Ed.), Multilingual Perspectives on Translanguaging (pp. 154-180). (Language, Education, and Diversity; Vol. 1). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800415690-008

Bhattacharya, U. & Mohanty, A. K. (2021). Ideological Plurality: English in Policy and Practice in India (Ch.10, pp.161-176). In R. Rubdy & R. Tupas (eds.), World Englishes Volume 2: Ideologies (Bloomsbury World Englishes Series). London: Bloomsbury Academic.ISBN: 9781350065864.

Bhattacharya, U. (2013). Mediating inequalities: Exploring English-medium instruction in a suburban Indian village school. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 164–184.

Bhattacharya, U. (2017). Colonization and English ideologies in India: a language policy perspective. Language Policy. 16. 10.1007/s10993-015-9399-2.

Boruah P., Mohanty A. (2022). English Medium Education in India: The Neoliberal Legacy and Challenges to Multilingual Language Policy Implementation (pp.51-71). In: Ali Jalalian Daghigh, Jariah Mohd Jan, and Sheena Kaur (eds.), Neoliberalization of English Language Policy in the Global South. Language Policy, vol 29. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92353-2

Brahmaiah, N & Mani, K.R.S. (2018). The Role of Code-Switching and Code-Mixing in Advertisements. Veda’s Journal of English Language and Literature- JOELL, 5(2), 228- 233.

Canagarajah, A. S. (2011a). Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 2(1), 1-28.

Canagarajah, S. (2011b). Code-meshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95(3), 401-417.

Canagarajah, S. (2013). Translingual practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. Routledge.

Carter, R. (2001). The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge University Press.

Carter, R. (2016). Language and creativity: The art of common talk, Routledge Linguistics Classics: London.

Cenoz, J. (2017). Translanguaging in school contexts: International perspectives. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 16(4), 193–198.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2019). Multilingualism, translanguaging, and minority languages in SLA. The Modern Language Journal, 103(Suppl. 1), 130–135.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2021). Pedagogical Translanguaging. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. OPEN ACCESS

Cenoz, J., Gorter, D. (2022). Pedagogical translanguaging and its application to language classes. RELC Journal, 53(2), 342–354.

Cenoz, Jasone & Gorter, Durk. (2017). Translanguaging as a Pedagogical Tool in Multilingual Education. In Language Awareness and Multilingualism (pp.309-321), doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-02240-6_20.

Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in teaching, Canadian Modern Language Review-revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes - CAN MOD LANG REV. 57. 402–423. 10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402.

Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.

Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103–115.

Cummins, J. (2017). Teaching for Transfer in Multilingual School Contexts. In: García, O., Lin, A., May, S. (eds) Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_8

Department of Education and Training (DET). (2019). National Education Policy 2019. Government of India.

Dovchin, S., & Lee, J.W. (2019). Introduction to the special issue: 'The ordinariness of translinguistics.' International Journal of Multilingualism, 16(2), 105–111.

Durairajan, G. (2016). Using the first language as a resource in English classrooms: What research from India tells us. In Hywel Coleman (ed.), Multilingualism and Development. UK/India: British Council, Pp. 307–316.

English Language Education in India: How Aspirations for Social Mobility Shape Pedagogy (ELEI). (2021, April 30). Economic and Political Weekly. https://www.epw.in/engage/article/english-language-education-india-aspirations-pedagogy

Fang, F., & Liu, Y. (2020). Using all English is not always meaningful: Stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of and attitudes towards translanguaging at a Chinese university. Lingua 247, 102959.

Fang, F., Zhang, L. J., & Sah, P. K. (2022). Translanguaging in Language Teaching and Learning: Current Practices and Future Directions. RELC Journal, 53(2), 305–312. https://doi.org/10.1177/00336882221114478

García O, Leiva C (2013). Theorizing and enacting translanguaging for social justice. In: Blackledge A, Creese A (eds) Heteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 199–216.

García, O. (2009). Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st Century. In F. M. Hult & D. C. Johnson (Eds.), Researching language in schools and communities: Functional linguistic perspectives (pp. 29–45). Routledge.

García, O. (2009). Education, Multilingualism and Translanguaging in the 21st Century. In Social Justice Through Multilingual Education, edited by T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty, and M. Panda, pp. 140–158. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

García, O., & Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave Macmillan.

Garcia, O., Johnson, S. I., & Seltzer, K. (2017). The translanguaging classroom: Leveraging student bilingualism for learning. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing.

Gonsalvis, K. (2022). The Problem of Kannada Medium Students in Learning English Language. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), 9(1), 288-291.

Gopalakrishnan, A. (2020, January 21). Ecological perspectives on implementing multilingual pedagogies in adult foreign language classrooms – a comparative case study. International Journal of Multilingualism, 19(1), 85–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2020.1712405

Government of India (GOI). (2021). New Education Policy. Ministry of Education.

Groff, C. (2016). Multilingual Policies and Practices in Indian Higher Education. In C. Mazak & K. Carroll (Ed.), Translanguaging in Higher Education: Beyond Monolingual Ideologies (pp. 121–140). Bristol, Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096657-009

Heller, M. (2010). Language and ethnicity. Annual Review of Anthropology, pp. 307–327.

Holliday, A. (2006). Native-speakerism. ELT Journal, 60(4), 385–387.

Hu, G. (2016). Research on second language learner strategies: Past, present, and future. In Yiu-nam Leung (Ed.), Epoch-making in English language teaching and learning (pp. 306–335).Taipei, ROC: Crane Publishing.

India: Investigating multilingual classrooms | UNESCO IIEP Learning Portal. (n.d.). https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/india-investigating-multilingual-classrooms

James, E., & Mendlesohn, F. (2003, November 20). The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction. Cambridge University Press.

Jayendran, N., Ramanathan, A., & Nagpal, S. (2021, July 29). Language Education. Taylor & Francis.

Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kachru, B.B. (ed.) (1992). The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Kalpana. (2023, February 22). Experts bat for translanguaging for children in India. Https://Www.Newindianexpress.Com/. Retrieved September 10, 2023, from https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/telangana/2023/feb/22/experts-bat-for-translanguaging-for-children-in-india-2549756.html

Khan, F. H., Pal, T., & Ghosh, S. (2020, March 1). English as 1st language vs English as 2nd language India: A Case Study. International Journal of English Learning & Teaching Skills, 2(3), 1375–1387. https://doi.org/10.15864/ijelts.2308

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford University Press.

Kumar T, Nukapangu V, Hassan A, (2021). Effectiveness of Code-Switching in Language Classroom in India at Primary Level: A Case of L2 Teachers’ Perspectives. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 11(4), 379-385

Li, W. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 9–30.

Li, W. (2022a). Translanguaging as a political stance: Implications for English language education. ELT Journal, 76(2), 172–182.

Li, W. (2022b). Translanguaging as a method. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, 1(3), 100026.

Li, W., García, O. (2022). Not a first language but one repertoire: Translanguaging as a decolonizing project. RELC Journal, 53(2), 313–324.

Lightfoot, A., Balasubramanian, A., Tsimpli, I., Mukhopadhyay, L., & Treffers-Daller, J. (2022). Measuring the multilingual reality: lessons from classrooms in Delhi and Hyderabad. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25 (6). pp. 2208–2228. ISSN 1747-7522 doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.1899123

Lippi-Green, R. (2012). English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States. 2nd edition. Abingdon: Routledge.

Liu, J. (1999). Nonnative-English-speaking professionals in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 33(1), 85–102.

May, S. (ed.) (2014). The Multilingual Turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and Bilingual Education. Abingdon: Routledge.

Menon, S., & Pallavi. (2022, July). Beyond Named Languages: A Step Too Far? Contemporary Education Dialogue, 19(2), 256–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/09731849221109112

Mishra, P. K. (2014). Objectives of teaching and learning English in India. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(9), 191–194.

Mohanty, A. (2017). Multilingualism, education, English and development: Whose development? In H. Coleman (ed.), Multilingualisms and Development, pp. 261–280. London: British Council.

Mohanty, A. K. & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2022). Growing up in multilingual societies: Violations of linguistic human rights in education (Ch.25, pp.578-601). In Anat Stavans and Ulrike Jessner (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Multilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781108669771

Mohanty, A. K. (2008). Perpetuating inequality: Language disadvantage and capability deprivation of tribal mother tongue speakers in India. In W. Harbert, S. McConnell-Ginet, A. Miller, & J. Whitman (Eds.), Language and poverty (pp. 102 –24). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Mohanty, A. K. (2017). Multilingualism, education, English and development: Whose development? In Hywel Coleman (ed.), Multilingualism and Development. UK/India: British Council, Pp. 261–280.

Mohanty. (2019, April 22). Language policy in education in India. In The Routledge International Handbook of Language Education Policy in Asia (1st ed., p. 12). Routledge (TAYLOR & FRANCIS). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315666235

Mukhopadhyay, A., & Sahoo, S. (2016, October). Does access to secondary education affect primary schooling? Evidence from India. Economics of Education Review, pp. 54, 124–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.07.003

Mukhopadhyay, L. (2020). Translanguaging in Primary Level ESL Classroom in India: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of English Language Teaching. 7(1). 10.5430/ijelt.v7n2p1.

Multilingualism in India - Association for Asian Studies (MII-AAS). (2023, July 6). Association for Asian Studies. https://www.asianstudies.org/publications/eaa/archives/multilingualism-in-india/

Nambissan, G. B. (2003). Educational deprivation and primary school provision: a study of providers in the city of Calcutta, IDS Working Paper 187. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

National Education Policy (NEP). (2020). Ministry of Education, Government of India. Retrieved from https://www.mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf

Panda, M., Mohanty, A. K., Nag, S. & Biswabandan, B. (2011). Does MLE work in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha? A Longitudinal Study. Swara, 1(6-7), 2 – 23 (also in www.nmrc-jnu.org).

Pandey, N., & Anshu, A. P. (2014). The language of knowledge? A case study of English-medium teaching in Delhi University. The Delhi University Journal Of The Humanities & The Social Science, pp. 1, 77–86.

Paul, A. (2019, August 1). ENGLISH AS FIRST LANGUAGE VS. ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE. International Journal of English Learning & Teaching Skills, 2(1), 823–833. https://doi.org/10.15864/ijelts.2104

Pennycook, A. (2018). Repertoires, registers and linguistic diversity. In M. Martin-Jones, A. Blackledge, & A. Creese (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of language and super-diversity (pp. 137-152). Routledge.

Pennycook, A. (2017). Translanguaging and semiotic assemblages, International Journal of Multilingualism, 14(3), 269-282, DOI: 10.1080/14790718.2017.1315810

Ramanathan, V. (2005). The English-vernacular divide: Postcolonial language politics and practice. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Rao, A. G. (2013). The English-only myth: Multilingual education in India. Language Problems & Language Planning, 37(3), 271–279.

Regnoli, G. (2019, April 24). Translanguaging as an expression of transnational identity. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, 5(2), 165–184. https://doi.org/10.1075/ttmc.00030.reg

Rose, H. & Galloway, N. (2019). Global Englishes for Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roy, S. (2014). Pedagogic predicament: The problems of teaching English within a postcolonial space. Interventions, 1(11), 1–11.

Sah, P. K., & Kubota, R. (2022). Towards critical translanguaging: A review of literature on English as a medium of instruction in South Asia’s school education. Asian Englishes, 24(2), 132–146.

Samrat, B., & Singh, S. (2019). Bridging the Divide: Collaborative Learning and Translanguaging in Multilingual Classrooms, FORTELL, 39, 46-57.

Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shah, M. (2010). Bilingual educational programmes in Indian schools: Addressing the English language needs of the country. In: D. Wyse, R. Andrews & J. Hoffman (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook Series (p. 461). New York, NY: Routledge.

Sharma, A., & Kaur, H. (2014). Impact of changing factors in English learning on students and teenagers by several new schemes introduced by CBSE. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 4(5), 25–27.

Simpson, S. (2017). Translanguaging in the contact zone: Language use in superdiverse urban areas. In H. Coleman (ed.), Multilingualisms and Development, pp. 207–224. London: British Council.

Singh, N. K., Zhang, S., & Besmel, P. (2012). Globalization and language policies of multilingual societies: Some case studies of South East Asia. Revista Brasileira de Linguı´stica Aplicada, 12(2), 349–380.

Sridhar, M., & Mishra, S. (Eds.). (2017). Language Policy and Education in India: Documents, contexts, and debates (1st ed.). Routledge India. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315542454

Taylor, S., K. & Mohanty, A. K. (2021). Challenges to implementing best practices in complex plurilingual environments: The case of South Asia (Ch.20-2, pp. 385–393). In Enrica Piccardo, Aline Germain-Rutherford, and Geoff Lawrence (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Plurilingual Language Education. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351002783

Veettil, R. P. (2013). Attitudes to varieties of English: The postcolonial scenario. ELT Voices – India. International Journal, 3(6), 14–34.

Viniti, V. (2019). Challenges and directions in implementing translanguaging pedagogy for low achieving students, Classroom Discourse, 10(3-4), 274–289, DOI: 10.1080/19463014.2019.1628790

Wang, P. (2022, June 7). Relooking at the Roles of Translanguaging in English as a Foreign Language Classes for Multilingual Learners: Practices and Implications. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.850649

Wang, W., & Curdt-Christiansen, X.L. (2019). Translanguaging in a Chinese–English bilingual education program: A university-classroom ethnography. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(3), 322–337.

Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave Macmillan.

Zhang, L.J. (2004). Awareness-raising in the TEFL phonology classroom: Student voices and sociocultural and psychological considerations. ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 145(1), 219–268.

Zhang, L.J. (2022). Translingual practices and English as an additional language: A conversation with Professor Suresh Canagarajah. RELC Journal, 53(2), 460–468.

Published

2023-12-25

How to Cite

Singh, A. K. (2023). Breaking Language Barriers: The Transformative Impact of Translanguaging on ELT in India: Memecahkan Halangan Bahasa: Kesan Transformatif Translanguaging Terhadap ELT di India. ATTARBAWIY: Malaysian Online Journal of Education, 7(2), 11–32. https://doi.org/10.53840/attarbawiy.v7i2.156